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In the 13th of his list of mathematical problems, Hilbert conjectured that the general degree 7 polynomial cannot be solved using only arithmeticoperations and algebraic functions of 2 or fewer variables. In the language of resolvent degree, Hilbert conjectures that RD(S_7) = 3. Reichstein has recently extended the notion of resolvent degree to general algebraic groups G. In this context, a conjecture of Tits asserts that RD(G) = 1 for any connected complex linear algebraic group. Reichstein proves unconditionally that RD(G)\le 5 for such G, and he offers this as possible evidence against Hilbert's conjecture. The goal of this talk is to offer analogous evidence *for* Hilbert's conjecture by extending Reichstein's definition to a notion of resolvent degree for arithmetic groups, variations of Hodge structure, and related moduli problems. We then use geometric techniques to give examples of problems F with RD(F) arbitrarily large. From this perspective, one can paraphrase Hilbert's 13th as asking which is a finite group more like: a connected complex linear algebraic group or an arithmetic lattice? This is joint work with Benson Farb and Mark Kisin.