The general average distance problem, introduced by Buttazzo, Oudet, and Stepanov, asks to find a good way to approximate a high-dimensional object, represented as a measure, by a one-dimensional object. We will discuss two variants of the problem: one where the one-dimensional object is a measure with connected one-dimensional support and one where it is an embedded curve. We will present examples that show that even if the data measure is smooth the nonlocality of the functional can cause the minimizers to have corners. Nevertheless the curvature of the minimizer can be considered as a measure. We will discuss a priori estimates on the total curvature and ways to obtain information on topological complexity of the minimizers. We will furthermore discuss functionals that take the transport along the network into account and model best ways to design transportation networks. (Based on joint works with Xin Yang Lu and Slav Kirov.)
This is a joint work with Piermarco Cannarsa and Wei Cheng.
We study the properties of the set S of non-differentiable points of viscosity solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, for a Tonelli Hamiltonian.
The main surprise is the fact that this set is locally arc connected—it is even locally contractible. This last property is far from generic in the class of semi-concave functions.
We also “identify” the connected components of this set S.
This work relies on the idea of Cannarsa and Cheng to use the positive Lax-Oleinik operator to construct a global propagation of singularities (without necessarily obtaining uniqueness of the propagation).
High-dimensional data can be difficult to analyze. Assume data are distributed on a low-dimensional manifold. The Vector Diffusion Mapping (VDM), introduced by Singer-Wu, is a non-linear dimension reduction technique and is shown robust to noise. It has applications in cryo-electron microscopy and image denoising and has potential application in time-frequency analysis.
In this talk, I will present a theoretical analysis of the effectiveness of the VDM. Specifically, I will discuss parametrisation of the manifold and an embedding which is equivalent to the truncated VDM. In the differential geometry language, I use eigen-vector fields of the connection Laplacian operator to construct local coordinate charts that depend only on geometric properties of the manifold. Next, I use the coordinate charts to embed the entire manifold into a finite-dimensional Euclidean space. The proof of the results relies on solving the elliptic system and provide estimates for eigenvector fields and the heat kernel and their gradients.
We show that the total area of two distinct Gaussian curvature 1 surfaces with the same conformal factor on the boundary, which are also conformal to the Euclidean unit disk, must be at least 4π. In other words, the areas of these surfaces must cover the whole unit sphere after a proper rearrangement. We refer to this lower bound of total areas as the Sphere Covering Inequality. This inequality and it's generalizations are applied to a number of open problems related to Moser-Trudinger type inequalities, mean field equations and Onsager vortices, etc, and yield optimal results. In particular we confirm the best constant of a Moser-Truidinger type inequality conjectured by A. Chang and P. Yang in 1987. This is a joint work Changfeng Gui.